Local School Councils – Chicago Newstips by Community Media Workshop http://www.newstips.org Chicago Community Stories Mon, 08 Jan 2018 18:45:05 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.4.13 Don Moore’s legacy http://www.newstips.org/2012/09/don-moores-legacy/ http://www.newstips.org/2012/09/don-moores-legacy/#comments Fri, 07 Sep 2012 01:06:12 +0000 http://www.newstips.org/?p=6606 Don Moore’s life had an impact far greater than many more famous and powerful people:  more than anyone, he was responsible for creating and defending Chicago’s Local School Councils, while demonstrating their value as the most effective vehicle this city has seen for improving urban education.

He was among the first to push democratic school governance as the solution to Chicago’s schools crisis in the 1980s, and in the following decade, as politicians and CPS administrators sought to recentralize power – and brought the city’s business and philanthropic elites back under their sway – he defended LSCs from legislative attacks and mobilized community involvement in LSC elections.

Meanwhile, in a remarkable body of research, he demonstrated that while central office interventions from probation to turnarounds had little effect, the high-poverty schools that showed steady long-term improvement in Chicago were those with what he termed “school-based democracy.”

“It’s not a stretch to say that had he not been doing this work, Local School Councils would have disappeared from the scene – and we would have lost one of the most important engines of educational improvement in the nation,” said Ray Boyer, who directed public affairs for the MacArthur Foundation until 2004 and collaborated on projects with Moore after that.

As reported by Substance, Catalyst and the Sun Times, Donald R. Moore died last week at age 70.

In 1977 Moore founded Designs For Change, a multi-faceted organization that housed his rigorous research along with organizing, training, and advocacy efforts.  When a decade-long school crisis came to a head with the 1987 teachers strike, Moore seized the opportunity to rally community groups and business leaders to his vision of school-based democratic governance.

Critical role

Amid a vast and often conflicting array of groups pushing reform, Moore “played a critical role” in creating and pushing legislation that established LSCs in 1988, according to Mary O’Connell’s fascinating account of that struggle.  As Catalyst notes, when O’Connell asked participants in that movement who was “most responsible” for school reform, Moore was named most often.

He was “brilliant” in “bringing a theoretical concept into reality,” said Rod Estvan of Access Living, a former Designs board member, and he was commited to the idea that even in a society scarred by poverty and racism, “if people had some democratic control over their schools, they could make them better.”

In the following years – especially as LSCs came under attack from the mayor and CPS administration — Moore amassed what Boyer calls “an amazing body of work,” a series of studies showing that high-poverty schools with sustained academic improvement were overwhelmingly open-enrollment neighborhood schools led by effective LSCs.

His 2005 report, The Big Picture, identified 144 such schools (with 100,000 students) with 15 years of steady improvement, while showing that schools where CPS appointed principals under probation had “no significant improvement.”  Those 144 schools’ success should be studied with an eye to replicating it in other schools, he argued.  While new top-down reform efforts aimed at creating a network of successful schools that could serve as models for others, he pointed out, “that network already exists,” he wrote.

Those 100,000 students, and all those who’ve followed them, owe much to their parents and teachers – and much  also to Don Moore, who helped build and defend the local governance model under which their schools are able to come together and thrive. (Contrary to the media image, most LSCs function well, according to research; they certainly function better than the Board of Education, where no committees meet and decisions are routinely rubber-stamped.)

Moore also identified the key elements contributing to school success, which he termed “the five essential supports”:  effective leadership, family-community partnerships, a supportive school environment, teacher development and teamwork, and a focus on the instructional program.  The Chicago Consortium for School Research subsequently tested and validated Moore’s framework for school success.


“It was a transformative idea,” said Boyer.  “You’re not talking about personnel changes – you’re not saying we need a new principal, or replace all the teachers – you’re talking about changing the structure of the school, how it works.”

“It’s a lot smarter than just looking at test scores from one year to the next,” said Julie Woestehoff of Parents United for Responsible Education, another group with roots in the late-’80s reform movement.

Moore’s “user-friendly reports were truly the ‘wind beneath the wings’ of the LSC reform movement,” Woestehoff commented in a PURE blog post.

His research had little impact on CPS policies, however, which have veered from one expensive fad to the next, disrupting schools, communities and students’ schooling without measurably impacting student achievement.

His most recent study identified 33 high-poverty neighborhood schools performing above the city average on reading scores, and compared them to turnaround school, not one of which meets that standard, even after several years and millions of additional dollars.  It recommended that “the resources now used for turnaround schools …be shifted to helping these effective [neighborhood] schools become resources for other schools.”

Moore was at the forefront of successful fights against a series of legislative attempts by Mayor Daley, CPS chief Paul Vallas, and others to take away LSCs’ power to hire principals, and he was among those raising awareness of LSC elections every other April and mobilizing community groups to recruit candidates.

Last April he spearheaded a protest when CPS for the first time refused to routinely release candidate information to community groups and neighborhood news sites.

“I wonder what’s going to happen at the next election, when he’s not there to beat the drum,” said Boyer.

As the Sun Times notes, his groundbreaking work on high-school dropouts revealed that Chicago’s drop-out rate was far higher than claimed; his research on CPS’s failure to meet its obligations to special education students led to a major civil rights lawsuit and consent decree.

Last November he raised the concern that CPS was closing schools based on their probationary status, decided by very questionable use of data — while failing to meet its legal obligations to assist schools that were placed on probation.  That led to a civil rights lawsuit by LSC members at schools being closed by CPS.

‘He cared’

Maria Hernandez was referred to Moore in 2009 after her alderman blew off a meeting at his office with 100 parents and children from Carpenter Elementary School.  They’d just learned that CPS was planning to phase out their school.

“He cared,” she said.  “He really cared.  He listened to us.  He came to our school, he met the parents, he talked to the children.”

It was a marked contrast to her alderman or to CPS officials, as she tells her story.  Parents testified at the school board, but “they ignored us.”  CPS chief Ron Huberman promised to come to a meeting but didn’t show.  When they then scheduled a meeting at his office, “he was there three minutes,” she remembers.  “He came in and shook our hands and said thank you for coming, pleased to meet you, we’re going to work this out. And now I have another meeting to go to.”

Moore threw himself into the fight by parents to save Carpenter and nearby Andersen Elementary.  They were the kinds of schools he’d championed:  academically successful, LSC-run schools in low-income communities of color.  Carpenter had an effective principal, a strong program in fine and performing arts and a thriving special ed program; its students were to be sent to a school that was on probation. Both schools were being displaced to accommodate new campuses for Gold Coast schools.

“He was with us throughout the entire fight,” Hernandez says.  After the school board ignored arguments that CPS’s claim that the schools were underutilized overlooked the needs of special ed students, Moore helped parents file a complaint with the U.S. Office of Civil Rights.

She remembers him calling late in the evening, still working on the complaint, asking one more question, nailing down one more detail.  They didn’t win that battle, but he shared their outrage and helped them speak truth to power.

That fight led to another that Moore threw himself into: State Rep. Cynthia Soto’s legislation to increase transparency and accountability in CPS facility planning.  Along with Valencia Rias, his colleague at Designs, he served on the Chicago Educational Facilities Task Force created by the bill.

A week before his death he was at a task force hearing with CPS officials, demanding greater clarity on the district’s criteria for closing schools, said Jacqueline Leavy, a consultant with the task force and longtime community activist.

“Don was passionate about the persistent, inequitable pattern of inadequate resources for neighborhood schools,” she said.  “He never gave up.”

What amazed me about Don Moore was his sheer tenacity in the face of so many frustrations.  His data was so strong, yet it was ignored by politicians and bureaucrats with agendas impervious to on-the-ground realities. He kept cranking it out.  The school board voted to close schools despite the most compelling arguments.  The attacks on LSCs never ended – but he knew the people who serve on the councils, and he knew what they are capable of accomplishing.

He had a quiet sense of righteous indignation that was anchored by a vast patience and unfailing sense of humor – and a meticulous attention to detail.  Wisdom, is what it was.

Moore faced many defeats and never gave up – but looked at historically, considering the 100,000 kids learning every year in thriving neighborhood schools that he helped make possible, recognizing the model of successful urban education that he helped create and keep alive in the face of such odds, his life was one of great success and accomplishment.


More on Don Moore:

Del Valle backs LSCs on principals

School closing numbers challenged

Recruiting LSC candidates

Complaint: Olympic bid discriminates

LSCs celebrate 20 years

Promoting segregation (on changes in magnet school admissions)

Emanuel wrong on charter performance

School closings, the law, and alternatives

West Side parents fight ‘education apartheid’

Charge CPS obstruction on LSC election

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Charge CPS obstruction on LSC election info http://www.newstips.org/2012/04/charge-cps-obstruction-on-lsc-election/ Wed, 11 Apr 2012 00:26:32 +0000 http://www.newstips.org/?p=6044 Neighborhood new sites report they’re “fighting to get basic information” about candidates in next week’s Local School Council election.

Citing “privacy” concerns, CPS has required Center Square Journal and Austin Talks to file FOIA requests for lists of candidates, candidate statements and contact information, according to reports.  In the past that information was routinely released.

On April 4, after weeks of inquiries, CSJ and AustinTalks received lists of candidates’ names and addresses, but no candidate statements and no phone numbers, according to Ellyn Fortino at AustinTalks.

Mike Fourcher of Center Square Journal writes that CPS has “obstructed” efforts to promote LSC elections – and CSJ efforts to report on the election.

“Obtaining a list of candidates for public office is a basic right of the voting public and the press,” Fourcher writes. “It’s necessary for citizens to determine for whom they plan to vote, for the press to report on candidates’ qualifications, and for candidates to know their opponents.

“In elections for any other public office, local governments make candidate lists easily available as a matter of course.”

“This practice of demanding FOIAs for information that should simply be publicly available in the case of the elections is something we’ve never seen before,” Don Moore of Designs for Change told CSJ.

Candidate forums

Center Square Journal is holding an informal forum for LSC candidates from nine schools Tuesday, April 10 at 7 p.m. at Dank Haus, 4740 N. Lincoln.  Its sister news site, Roscoe View Journal, holds a forum Wednesday, April 11 at 7 p.m. at the Atheneum Theater, 2936 N. Southport.

LSC elections take place on April 18 for elementary and middle schools and April 19 for high schools.

In the Welles Park Bulldog, Patrick Boylan has reported on the failure of Ravenswood schools to follow CPS policies on LSC elections, including public access to candidates’ nominating papers.  At McPherson School, Boylan reports he was denied access to nominating papers until he refused to leave without reviewing them.

Earlier this year, CPS for the first time required community groups to FOIA information on the number of people who had filed as candidates.  In the past that information has been released regularly and used by community groups to encourage residents to run for LSC positions in areas lacking sufficient candidates.

Last month 27 community and education groups including Designs for Change accused CPS of “failing to lead a successful candidate recruitment campaign.”  They demanded the deadline for candidates to file be extended, and CPS did so.

Last week CSJ reported that Lake View and Amundsen high schools don’t have enough parent candidates to fill out their LSCs.

Is CPS abusing probation? http://www.newstips.org/2012/02/is-cps-abusing-probation/ http://www.newstips.org/2012/02/is-cps-abusing-probation/#comments Wed, 15 Feb 2012 00:26:50 +0000 http://www.newstips.org/?p=5656 The lawsuit filed last week against CPS closings and turnarounds highlights two central issues – the charge that the district is systematically neglecting neighborhood schools, and the longstanding contention that CPS uses probation to undermine local school councils.

According to the lawsuit, filed by nine LSC members with backing from the teachers union, CPS has failed to follow requirements in school code that LSCs at schools on probation be provided with plans that specify deficiencies to be corrected and with budgets targetting resources to carry out the plans. (This issue was first discussed here in November.)

According to the Tribune, CPS says they’ve “provided support to these low-performing schools over multiple years to boost student improvement.” Have they?

Tilden High, now slated for a”turnaround” by CPS, has been on probation for eight years. During that time there have been “drastic budget cuts,” amounting to a half-million dollars or more each year, according to LSC member Matthew Johnson, a plaintiff in the lawsuit.

Drastic cuts

The school has lost English teachers, math teachers, a computer lab teacher, a librarian. It’s lost funding for its auto shop and its woodshop – leading some kids to drop out, he said.

Johnson is bitterly disappointed that CPS isn’t using a $5.4 million federal school improvement grant won by Tilden to bring in an outside partner for the school. Instead CPS is holding on to the money, in order to pay itself to replace the school’s entire staff.

Dyett High School, on probation for seven years and set to be phased out, was set up to fail from the start, as Matt Farmer has argued – established in 1999 to take struggling students cast off from King Prep, and seriously destablized with a new set of students when Englewood High was closed in 2005.

Even so, says LSC member Jitu Brown, the school worked with community partners to establish a restorative justice program that produced the largest reduction in violent incidents in any city school – and a college readiness program that produced one of the district’s largest increases in college admissions.

But when private grants supporting the program expired, CPS turned down the LSC’s request to take up the ball, said Brown, who’s also education organizer for the Kenwood Oakland Community Organization.

The school has lost four teachers in the past two years, in addition to its assistant principal and a counselor; there’s now one counselor for 300 students. “When Dyett improves student culture, [CPS doesn’t] support the program; when Dyett’s scores start to go up, they take away teachers and counselors,” Brown said.

Probation: remediation or political control?

Probation was intended to be a program of remediation, but critics have long maintained that CPS used it as a political tool to centralize power. It’s pretty clear they haven’t used it to improve educational outcomes.

Parents United for Responsible Education made the case in a 2004 report, which showed that CPS went beyond the provisions of the Illinois School Code regarding probation, using it to take control over school improvement plans and school budgets away from LSCs.

The law limits the school board’s role to identifying deficiencies at the school which must be addressed in the school improvement plan and approving budgets with expenditures targeted to correct those deficiencies, according to the report.

“Few LSCs have ever seen the corrective action plan which is supposed to be guiding schools” to help them get off probation, PURE reported in 2004. That’s exactly what LSC members are saying today. (Ten years ago, CPS stopped attending advisory committee meetings where these concerns were being aired, PURE reported.)

Probation was one of two main methods of getting rid of democratic school governance, according to the report. The other was establishing new schools without LSCs under Renaissance 2010.

That strategy also violated the law, according to PURE. State law required LSCs to remain in place when schools were converted in buildings that had LSCs. PURE and LSC members sued CPS on that issue, but the case was dismissed for lack of standing, and its merits were never considered.

Research has consistently shown that most LSCs function well, that they provide accountability, contribute to academic improvement, raise money and building community partnerships. Significantly, most principals strongly support them. The low-income schools that have shown steady progress over sustained periods have LSCs.

Central office interventions have fallen far short of that record. Renaissance 2010 is recognized as a failure, and very expensive turnarounds have produced results that haven’t matched the hype. The rhetoric about “putting children first” is brilliant but unconvincing.

The old provisions of the school code dealing with probation, like the new provisions on facilities planning, are designed to foster communication and shared responsibility. If CPS has been ignoring its legal mandates – if the district has failed to provide help to struggling schools — it should be held accountable.

And since there’s precious little public accountability under mayoral control and top-down reform, maybe the courts – and the legislature, too — need to step in.

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Parents air concerns on longer school day http://www.newstips.org/2011/09/parents-air-concerns-on-longer-school-day/ http://www.newstips.org/2011/09/parents-air-concerns-on-longer-school-day/#comments Wed, 28 Sep 2011 22:36:49 +0000 http://www.newstips.org/?p=4773 Parents in meetings on the West and North Sides this week discussing the proposal for an extended school day expressed a range of concerns far beyond the “for-or-against” terms in which the issue has been framed by Mayor Emanuel and the media.

Both groups released surveys – one large, one small, neither scientific but both gauging the views of parents who are particularly active in their children’s schools.   How the longer day will be implemented and how it will be funded are major concerns.

But how long it should be is also an open question for parents.  The Raise Your Hand Coalition surveyed 1200 parents in 230 schools and found broad support for a longer school day – but little support for making it as long as Emanuel has proposed.

Only 16 percent of respondents in their online survey supported extending the school day to 7.5 hours.  A vast majority – 71 percent – support a school day of 6.5 to 7 hours.

At 13 schools where the group recently won schedule changes to allow children to have recess — moving teachers’ lunch hour to the middle of the day, thus extending the school day to 6.5 hours at no cost to CPS – parents were very happy with the schedule they have, said Sonia Kwon of Raise Your Hand.

“Parents want six-and-a-half hours,” Kwon told Newstips.  “Why [is CPS] asking for seven-and-a-half?”

She points out that since bus routes have been lengthened to cut costs, kids who are bused to her children’s school for special programs have trips as long as an hour-and-a-half.  “With a seven-and-a-half hour day, you’ll have little kids who are away from home for ten hours every day.”

Every school’s situation is different, she says, pointing out that RYH’s recess program was harder to pass at schools with inadequate playground facilities.

Schools without playgrounds

At the Greater St. John Bible Church in Austin on Monday night, one mother said that her children have to go to another school for gym, and will have to travel even farther to get to a playground for recess.

A survey of 36 parents, teachers, and community members who attended that meeting found most favoring a longer day, but 60 percent favoring less than 90 additional minutes now under consideration.

For many, support of a longer day was contingent on sufficient planning and funding, or on agreement between CPS at the Chicago Teachers Union.  The largest segment wanted additional time used to add art, science, music, and gym.

Some 73 percent did not want their schools to move immediately to a longer day.  An overwhelming proportion, 83 percent, said Local School Councils, parents, community stakeholders and educators should be part of the decision-making and planning process.

“LSCs and parents have not been engaged,” said Dwayne Truss of the Ella Flagg Young LSC, who opened the meeting.  “In order to get balance, the process has to be inclusive.”

John Fountain III of AustinTalks.org moderated the meeting, and Valerie Leonard of the Lawndale Alliance compiled the survey results.

Tuesday night at Coonley Elementary in Ravenswood, RYH leaders called on parents to become involved in planning at their schools, and outlined concerns that emerged from their survey.  Parents want quality over quantity and a well-rounded school day, they said.  They want an approach that is sustainable in a school system that has seen annual cuts.  They are worried about CPS’s capacity for carrying out the plan.

‘Show me the money’

CPS has an “underwhelming track record for planning, logistics, and implementation of new policies and procedures,” said Claire Waypole.  “And show me the money,” she added, pointing out that Illinois is now dead last among states for support of public education.

“There can be the greatest idea in the world, but if there’s no money for it, how is it going to happen?” she asked.

How many new art and music teachers will be available – and what’s to guarantee that schools don’t face new cuts and larger class sizes in the second year of the program, Kwon asked later.  Additional money for schools that lengthened their hours this year will not be available next year, she said.

“Nobody at CPS answers any questions about money,” she said.  “That’s one reason everyone is so confused.”

“We have a deficit every year, and next year we’re going to have a worse deficit,” said Truss.  “So are you talking about education, or is this a political battle?”

Audience discussion ranged widely at both meetings.  In both Austin and in Ravenswood, speakers who called CPS’s proposal to lengthen the school day with token payment to teachers “insulting” received warm applause.  (In Austin a speaker called the proposal “legalized slavery.”)

A few parents in Ravenswood spoke against lengthening the school day.  If CPS has the money for a longer day, one mother said, she’d rather they spend it on reducing class sizes.

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Community hearing on LSCs http://www.newstips.org/2008/07/community-hearing-on-lscs/ Fri, 18 Jul 2008 19:52:44 +0000 http://communitymediaworkshop.org/newstips/?p=234 Community and school reform groups are co-sponsoring a legislative hearing on strengthening LSCs — the third in a citywide series — Saturday, July 19, 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. at Austin Town Hall, 5610 W. Lake (pdf).

Local groups that are participating include Blocks Together, the Austin Community Education Network, South Austin Coalition, West Side Ministers Alliance, West Side NAACP, and the West Side Educational Committee.

The House Elementary and Secondary Education Committee is the sponsor, and among legislators attending will be State Sen, Kimbery Lightford, chair of the Senate Education Committee.  A grassroots legislative taskforce will compile proposals from testimony as it reviews school reform law later this year.

At the first hearing in April (see Newstip and follow-up post), veteran LSC members from dozens of schools called for more support for LSCs.  Many also called for an elected school board.

Elected school board? http://www.newstips.org/2008/04/elected-school-board/ http://www.newstips.org/2008/04/elected-school-board/#comments Tue, 15 Apr 2008 21:33:50 +0000 http://communitymediaworkshop.org/newstips/?p=156 At Saturday’s hearing on LSCs, speaker after speaker — grassroots activists working to improve neighborhood schools, some with many years of service — called for an elected school board.

With LSC elections Wednesday and Thursday, PURE has just announced a petition drive for a citywide advisory referendum on whether the Board of Education should be directly elected.  Supporters need to collect 40,000 signatures in the next four months.

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Strengthening LSCs http://www.newstips.org/2008/04/strengthening-lscs-2/ Wed, 09 Apr 2008 18:23:27 +0000 http://communitymediaworkshop.org/newstips/?p=146 The Kenwood Oakland Community Organization is hosting a legislative hearing on strengthening LSCs this Saturday, April 12 starting at 11:15 a.m. at Kennicott Park, 4434 S. Lake Park.

KOCO and allies successfully pushed for passage of a resolution last year which declared that the Illinois House of Representatives “support[s] the empowerment of Local School Councils as local, publicly-elected decision-making bodies” and authorized subject matter hearings on the needs of LSCs.

LSC members from across the city will testify Saturday about why LSCs are needed, how they work in particular schools, and how they could be better supported.

LSCs bring “community wisdom” — a grassroots perspective that is often lacking from CPS decision-making, said Jitu Brown, KOCO’s education organizer and a member of the Dyett High School LSC.

Brown cites the disastrous transfer of students from Englewood High to other South Side schools, disregarding community concerns about security and gang issues. “Dyett exploded,” he recalls. “Hyde Park exploded. Who do you hold accountable for that?

“The school district doesn’t understand community dynamics,” Brown said.

He also points to the closing of successful neighborhood schools which “should serve as models” for a system with a huge dropout rate.

More fundamentally, “As people of color we have to be sure there’s public accountability because there’s a demonstrated record of our not receiving the resources or the quality of services that we’re supposed to get, because of our color,” Brown said. “CPS has a disastrous record in terms of equity in distribution of resources.”

Some schools have a laptop for each student, others one or two computers in each classroom, he said. “Why is it OK that Harper High has to use discretionary funds to hire teachers and security guards, and doesn’t have money for a band or debate team or school newspaper, and Walter Payton College Prep is a world-class facility? Why is that acceptable?”

When Brown joined the Dyett LSC is 2003, “there were seven books in its library,” he said. CPS had made a high school of a former middle school “without giving it the resources to be a high school.” The LSC there has worked to get resources and “make the school parent and community friendly,” he said. Brown contributes a life skills program for male students that is successful and growing; next week a group is visiting UIC.

The relationship between CPS and LSCs “has to be a partnership,” Brown said. “I can’t develop a mathematics curriculum, but I know what good teaching looks like, I know what high expectations look like.”

Instead, parents and community “are more tolerated than collaborated with,” he said. “CPS has a belief that parent and community involvement should take direction from the school district.”

There’s a culture exemplified by “the way [school board president] Rufus Williams talks with such arrogance and disdain about parental involvement or LSCs,” Brown said.

KOCO’s education committee, the Mid South Education Association, includes LSC and community members along with administrators and teachers, and sponsors back-to-school rallies, forums and roundtables, as well as teacher trainings on topics like black history and youth leadership development. MSEA also has a group of parents who train LSC members, going beyond the CPS program to cover the history of Chicago school reform from a community perspective, racism and education, and school funding issues.

A task force of school reform groups will compile testimony from Saturday’s hearing and shape legislative proposals out of it, Brown said.

LSC candidate deadline extended http://www.newstips.org/2008/03/lsc-candidate-deadline-extended/ Fri, 14 Mar 2008 20:03:22 +0000 http://communitymediaworkshop.org/newstips/?p=117 CPS has extended the deadline for candidates to file for LSC elections to Monday, March 24.  The news was reported on PURE’s blog, and apparently nowhere else —  even the CPS website has no word of the extension.  Indeed, CPS still has the original March 12 deadline on its LSC election timeline (pdf) and on the nomination form available here.

There are currently just over 5,500 candidates signed up, according to Julie Woestehoff of PURE.  According to Catalyst (in an article on declining resources for LSC candidate recruitment), there are 5,700 open slots on 550 LSCs in the city.  CPS had set a goal of 8,500 candidates, a steep increase over 7,000 who ran two years ago, according to PURE.

“CPS is now completely in control of elections, and they’re not doing a good job,” commented Woestehoff.  “And groups that are committed and willing to do the work on recruitment don’t have the resources, and we’re seeing the results.”

This afternoon PURE posted a list of 59 schools reporting too few candidates to form an LSC (a council with a quorum can fill vacancies) — including 43 with no parent or community candidate at all.